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Western Civilizations 2 CLEP Practice Test
1) The noble revolts known as the Fronde resulted in
A) The assassination of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661
B) Renewed power for the Parliament of Paris
C) A unified noble army securing and increasing its own power
D) French citizens turning to the monarchy for stability
E) The establishment of Catholicism as France’s only legal religion
2) The economic policies of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV’s controller general of finances,
A) Were noted for their innovation and originality
B) Used new accounting practices to lessen the tax burden on the peasants
C) Were based on mercantilism and stressed state benefits from government regulation of the economy
D) Gave Louis the large treasury surplus he needed to make war
E) Led to a policy of peace instead of war because of the latter’s great economic costs
3) The War of the Spanish Succession was effectively concluded with the Peace of Utrecht in 1713, which
A) Gave the French king control of Spanish territories
B) Gave France control over the Spanish Netherlands, Naples, and Milan
C) Drove the Bourbons from Spain
D) Destroyed the European balance of power
E) Greatly benefited England, a strong naval power
4) Which of the following slogans from the French Revolution neatly evoked the ideals of the rebellion?
A) “Down with the aristocracy!”
B) “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!”
C) “Death to the king and queen!”
D) “Kill all priests and burn all churches!”
E) “Vive l’Empereur!”
5) The Industrial Revolution in Britain was largely inspired by
A) An urgent need to reduce eighteenth-century poverty
B) The failure of the cottage industry
C) Entrepreneurs who sought and accepted the new manufacturing methods of inventions
D) The Dutch and French industrialization
E) The availability of substantial amounts of English-grown cotton
6) The Greek independence rebellion was successful largely because of
A) A well-trained guerrilla army
B) The Turks’ lack of fortitude
C) European intervention
D) Superior Greek military tactics
E) The superior Greeks defense of the acropolis
7) The Ausgleich, or Compromise, of 1867
A) Created a loose federation of ethnic states within the Austrian Empire
B) Freed the serfs and eliminated compulsory labor in the Austrian Empire
C) Made Austria part of the North German Confederation
D) Created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary
E) Destroyed the unity that had been achieved between Austria and Hungary in the 1848 revolutions
8) A key reason for Germany supplanting England as the industrial leader of Europe was
A) British unwillingness to support and encourage formal technical and scientific education
B) British decentralization of factory production
C) German use of gas-powered internal combustion engines to drive all factory production
D) Massive German importation of skilled British workers
E) Geography, for German was located on the continent of Europe and England was an island
9) The entry of the United States into World War I in April 1917
A) Gave the nearly-defeated allies a psychological boost
B) Was greatly feared by the German naval staff
C) Was a response to Turkey’s entrance into the war on the side of the Central Powers
D) Put an end to Germany’s use of unlimited submarine warfare
E) Was too late to have any impact upon the events of the war
10) The Munich Conference
A) Was applauded by Winston Churchill as a “wise and noble agreement”
B) Established that German desires for the Sudetenland necessitated war with the Western powers
C) Was criticized by Winston Churchill as a tragic outcome of appeasement
D) Represented a severe setback for Hitler
E) Saved Czechoslovakia from destruction and Europe from another long and painful war
CLEP Practice Test Answer Key:
- D:) French citizens turning to the monarchy for stability. The two Fronde revolts of 1648–1649 and 1651–1652 opposed the regency government of the Italian Cardinal Mazarin who attempted to centralize monarchical rule while governing for the underage Louis XIV.
- C:) Were based on mercantilism and stressed state benefits from government regulation of the economy. Louis XIV’s controller general of finance, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, was a mercantilist. He favored a heavily regulated economy designed to increase the gold reserves in state coffers.
- E:) Greatly benefited England, a strong naval power. The Treaty of Utrecht, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession, allowed the Bourbons to rule Spain but stated that the two Bourbon kingdoms of Spain and France would never be united.
- B:) “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!”. The upheavals of the French Revolution led to new liberal and national political ideals most famously expressed in the slogan, “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!”
- C:) Entrepreneurs who sought and accepted the new manufacturing methods of inventions. The Industrial Revolution in Britain was inspired by entrepreneurs who sought out and applied new manufacturing methods and technologies.
- C:) European intervention. European intervention by France, Britain, and Russia helped Greeks to regain their freedom from the Ottomans in 1829)
- D:) Created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. In the nineteenth century, ethnic nationalism was endemic in the German-run Austrian Empire, particularly in Hungary.
- A:) British unwillingness to support and encourage formal technical and scientific education. One of the key reasons that the Germans supplanted the British as the industrial leader of Europe was that the British, unlike the Germans, were unwilling to encourage formal scientific and technical education.
- A:) Gave the nearly-defeated allies a psychological boost. On April 1917, the United States joined Britain and France in World War I, in reaction to the unrestricted German submarine warfare.
- C:) Was criticized by Winston Churchill as a tragic outcome of appeasement. In 1938, Hitler threatened war unless Czechoslovakia ceded the largely ethnic German territory of the Sudetenland to Germany.